[Huang, Fulian; Tian, Shaowen; Yang, Yufeng; Deng, Haifeng; Li, Zengbang; Ouyang, Xinping] Univ S China, Coll Med, Dept Physiol, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Li, Peng] Univ S China, Coll Life Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, Peoples R China.
[Tian, Shaowen] Univ S China, Coll Med, Dept Physiol, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, Peoples R China.
Sleep<&wdkj&>Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation<&wdkj&>Fear memory<&wdkj&>Reconsolidation<&wdkj&>Rats
There is increasing evidence that sleep may be involved in memory consolidation. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the reconsolidation of cued (experiment 1) and contextual (experiment 2) fear memory in rats. Behaviour procedure involved four training phases: habituation, fear conditioning, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6 h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation or 6 It later. The control rats were returned to their home cages immediately after reactivation and left undisturbed. Contrary to those hypotheses speculating a potential role of sleep in reconsolidation, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6 It or 6 to 12 h had no effect on the reconsolidation of both cued and contextual fear memory. However, our present results did not exclude the potential roles of non-rapid eye movement sleep in the reconsolidation of fear memory or sleep in the reconsolidation of other memory paradigms. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Xie, F; Chen, LX] Univ South China, Hunan Prov Cooperat Innovat Ctr Mol Target New Dr, Key Lab Pharmacoprote, Inst Pharm & Pharmacol, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China.
Recently,Khayachi et al.showed that fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an active substrate of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) pathway in neurons.FMRP SUMOylation is induced by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu5Rs).FMRP SUMOylation is required for dissociating FMRP from dendritic RNA granules and controlling spine density and proper maturation.Mechanically,the SUMOylation process is triggered by the activation of mGlu5Rs,thereby contributing to maintaining FMRP-mediated neuronal function.In fact,some proteins that mediate synaptic plasticity,neurotransmitter release,and neuronal network formation,are mostly regulated by SUMOylation.Therefore,SUMOylation has emerged as an essential posttranslational modification in the nervous system.This novel discovery first provides evidence to support the idea that FMRP is a novel substrate of SUMOylation and acts as an essential regulator in the developing brain.Clearly,it also expands the biological ramifications of FMRP modification,since FMRP was previously supposed to be modulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.Together,their research reveals that the rapid SUMOylation of FMRP results from the activation of mGlu5Rs and activity-dependent FMRP SUMOylation is a novel target for affecting neuronal functions.
Previous studies have shown that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) exerts a detrimental effect on some memory tasks. However, whether post-learning RSD impairs memory for fear extinction, an important model of inhibitory learning, remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of post-extinction RSD from 0 to 6 h and 6 to 12 h on recall of fear extinction tested 24 h after extinction training. We found that RSD from 0 to 6 h significantly increased freezing when recall of extinction of cued fear was tested in the context in which rats received extinction training whereas RSD from 6 to 12 h had no effect (experiments 1 and 2, two hippocampus-independent memory tasks). RSD at either time point had no effect on freezing when recall of extinction of cued fear was tested in the context different from that in which extinction training occurred (experiment 3, a hippocampus-dependent memory task). Additionally, we observed no effect of RSD at either time point on freezing during recall test for extinction of contextual fear (experiment 4, a hippocampus-dependent memory task). These results suggest that the effects of post-extinction RSD on memory for fear extinction are complex. RSD impairs recall of fear extinction in hippocampus-independent tasks, but does not affect recall of fear extinction in hippocampus-dependent tasks. Our findings extend previous research on the effects of RSD on learning and memory and support the notion that REM sleep is involved in memory process of certain tasks. (c) 2006 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patient empowerment has been shown to have some positive impacts on self-efficacy, self-esteem, and recovery. However, information about the empowerment needs of patients after a percutaneous coronary intervention is scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a Chinese-language instrument to measure empowerment needs of such patients. The initial instrument was generated based on a literature review and interviews with patients after a percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. Content validity was tested with a panel of experts using the Delphi method. In total, 226 patients were recruited for psychometric tests using the revised instrument. Expert authority coefficient was 0.92, and content validity index was 0.95. The internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients (0.86 for the total score, 0.66-0.74 for the dimensions). The newly developed 19-item, five-dimension instrument has shown satisfactory validity (face/content validity and construct validity) and internal consistency reliability. The instrument could help clinical nurses who have close contact with patients after a percutaneous coronary intervention to gain a better understanding of their empowerment needs and could help develop appropriate health education to address such needs.