Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of macrophages in the arterial intima. The activated macrophages secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which promote the development of the disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major component of high density lipoprotein, is involved in reverse cholesterol transport of lipid metabolism. Recently, it has been found that apoA-I suppresses inflammation via repression of inflammatory cytokine expression;the mechanisms of the apoA-I-suppressive action, however, are not yet well characterized. In this study, we have for the first time found that apoA-I suppresses the expression of some inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide via a specific post-transcriptional regulation process, namely mRNA destabilization, in macrophages. Our further studies have also shown that AU-rich elements in the 3′-untranslated region of TNF-αmRNA are responsive to the apoA-I-mediated mRNA destabilization. The apoA-I-induced inflammatory cytokine mRNA destabilization was associated with increased expression of mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin through aJAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway-dependent manner. When blocking interaction of apoA-Iwith ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a major receptor for apoA-Iin macrophages, it would almost totally abolish the effect of apoA-I on tristetraprolin expression. These results present not only a novel mechanism for the apoA-I-mediated inflammation suppression in macrophages but also provide new insights for developing strategies for modulating vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. ©2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.