Systemic Practice and Action Research,2007年20(3):211-244 ISSN：1094-429X
Shen, Chao Ying
[Chao Ying Shen] College of Management, Nanhua University;[Gerald Midgley] Fo Guang Shan Tsung-Lin University
[Shen, Chao Ying] Nanhua Univ, Grad Inst Management Sci, 32 Chung Keng Li, Chiayi 622, Taiwan.;College of Management, Nanhua University
Boundary critique;Buddhism;Buddhist organization;Buddhist Systems Methodology (BSM);Culture;Methodological pluralism;Systemic intervention;Systems methodology;Systems thinking;Viable System Model (VSM)
This paper describes the application of a Buddhist systems methodology (BSM) to tackle a significant conflict (and underlying issues) threatening the future of a large non-governmental Buddhist membership organization in Taiwan. An evaluation of the BSM, undertaken six months after the intervention, demonstrated positive impacts, including a major reduction in conflict; improved communications across the organization (especially from the bottom-up); a successful restructuring to address some of the underlying issues; a significant upturn in the recruitment and retention of members; and a consequential turn-around of the organization's financial position. In addition, several senior managers took on the BSM for their personal use, trained others, and cascaded the methodology down the organization. This resulted in the official adoption of the BSM as the 'main decision-making system' for part of the organization, and the start of wider dissemination. Based on these results, the authors argue that the BSM may have more general utility for problem solving and problem prevention in Taiwanese (and possibly other) Buddhist organizations.
The Journal of Sex Research,2003年40(3):230-236 ISSN：0022-4499
[Vern L. Bullough] State University of New York, Distinguished Professor Emeritus in history and sociology ;[Vern L. Bullough] Professor Emeritus, California State University , Northridge;[Vern L. Bullough] Teaches sexology as an adjunct professor in the nursing school , University of Southern California ;[Vern L. Bullough] Fellow in the Medieval and Renaissance Center , UCLA ;[Vern L. Bullough] 3304 West Sierra Dr., Westlake Village, CA, 91362 E-mail: email@example.com
[Bullough, VL] 3304 W Sierra Dr, Westlake Village, CA 91362 USA.
Meeting of the Eastern-Region of the Society-for-the-Scientific-Study-of-Sexuality
SUNY, New York, NY USA.^Univ So Calif, Northridge, CA 90089 USA.
John Money has been a dominant voice in sexology in the last part of the 20th century, breaking new ground in a wide variety of areas. In the process, he has been cantankerous, outspoken, and ever willing to do battle, but also original and thought provoking. This paper begins with an examination of science in general, moves on to psychology and sexology, and then examines Money's contributions to sexology in some detail. The latter are many and varied, including the development of the concept of gender, his theory of gender identity based on his work with intersex individuals, the John‐Joan case, and his importance in establishing transsexualism as a diagnostic category and an academic discipline. Also important are his contributions to the development of the nomenclature of sexology, his importance to the sexology movement as a teacher, his significant research on a large variety of sexual topics, his ability to convince government agencies that sex was deserving of funding, and his association with the Erickson Educational Foundation. He also was a significant figure in the development of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) and in raising the standard of its journal (The Journal of Sex Research), and therefore it is only fitting that an award be named after him. Though Money remains controversial, he has contributed significantly to the development of sexology as a discipline.
This research presents an analysis of Taiwan’s health care market with the focus on the pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians’ choice behavior. Since the advent of Taiwan’s national health insurance, with the competent authority being Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI), hospitals are allowed to sell prescription drugs to patients at prices above the purchasing prices, so each prescription drug has two prices: one at which drugs are sold to hospitals; the other which BNHI reimbursement to hospitals. The margin between the different prices is the sales discount that pharmaceutical companies offer to the hospitals. We find that sales discount has a great impact on physicians’ choice behavior: i.e., physicians are price-sensitive to prescription drugs. In addition, it is found that too high a sales discount of a prescription drug would result in a too low weighted average price of that drug sold; thus BNHI would be more likely to adjust downward the rate it reimbursement to the hospital. This presents a sales strategy problem to pharmaceutical companies. To solve this, we use the distribution of physicians’ evaluations of prescription drugs to establish a profit maximization model in hopes of helping companies to price drugs and find the optimal promotion expending. Ten popular prescription drugs are used in this research as examples.
[纪琳] Guangxi Univ, XingJian Coll Sci & Liberal Arts, Int Coll, Nanning 530004, Peoples R China.;[蒋天平] Cent China Normal Univ, Sch Chinese Language & Literature, Wuhan 430079, Peoples R China.;[蒋天平] Univ S China, Coll Chinese Languages, Hengyang 421001, Peoples R China.
[Jiang Tianping] Cent China Normal Univ, Sch Chinese Language & Literature, Wuhan 430079, Peoples R China.