Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a recently novel lipolytic adipokine implicated in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in many metabolic disorders. In vitro and animal studies suggest that thyroid hormones (TH) up-regulates ZAG production in hepatocytes. However, there is no data evaluating the possible relationship between ZAG and TH in a human model of hyperthyroidism. The objective of the present study is to assess the association of serum ZAG levels with TH and lipid profile in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after methimazole treatment. A total of 120 newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 122 healthy control subjects were recruited. Of them, 39 hyperthyroidism patients were assigned to receive methimazole treatment as follow-up study for 2 months. The clinical consequence showed that serum ZAG levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism (P < 0.01). Adjust for age, gender and BMI, serum ZAG levels were positively related with serum free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4) levels and negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels in hyperthyroidism subjects (all P < 0.01). After methimazole treatment, serum ZAG levels were decreased and the decline was associated with decreased FT3, FT4 and increased TC levels (all P < 0.001). We conclude that ZAG may be involved in the pathogenesis of lipid metabolism disorder in patients with hyperthyroidism. ChiCTR-ROC-17012943. Registered 11 October 2017, retrospectively registered.